Microbiology and Quality Assurance of Kombucha

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By Phoebe Hinton-Sheley
Reviewed by P Surat, Ph.D

Kombucha is a fermented drink (also known as ‘Kombucha Tea’) that is thought to have originated in China and was first recorded as being a beverage in 221BC.

How is kombucha made?

This drink is made by fermenting what used to be called ‘the Manchurian mushroom’. However, It has since been discovered that it is not a mushroom but a symbiotic combination of acetic acid bacteria and a type of yeast. This ‘symbiotic culture of bacteria and yeast’ known as a SCOBY culture or ‘pellicle’ is mainly comprised of bacterial cellulose.

Healthy SCOBY culture for kombucha production. (P-fotography | Shutterstock)

Healthy SCOBY culture for kombucha production. (P-fotography | Shutterstock)

The yeast-bacteria combination culture is made into ‘tea-fungus’. After this is left to brew and ferment inside either green tea or black tea with sugar, it leaves behind the two portions of kombucha tea: the floating cellulosic pellicle layer, and a sour liquid broth at the bottom.

As kombucha cultures are grown, they form a large, flat colony on top of the tea. Once this colony is left to ferment for approximately ten days or more, the original ‘mother’ culture begins to produce a secondary layer – appropriately named ‘baby’ cultures. While all of this is happening, the tea begins to fully ferment, which produces the acidic, carbonated beverage.

As Kombucha is home-brewed, biological/chemical analysis methods are rarely used – it is usually brewed until it ‘looks’ ready. However, a 2014 study did some culture-independent, high-throughput sequencing analysis on the fungal and bacterial populations of five different pellicles, as well as two different resulting kombucha brews.

This analysis established that the most common bacteria type present was Gluconacetobacter, which makes up approximately >85% in most of the samples, while only trace numbers of Acetobacter being observed (<2%). Lactobacillus populations were also identified, with a presence of up to 30%.

Furthermore, a number of sub-dominant types of bacteria, not previously thought to have been associated with kombucha, were also observed in these samples.

The yeast populations were found to mainly consist of Zygosaccharomyces, at a concentration of around 95% – with a greater diversity of fungus being present in the pellicle. This analysis identified numerous yeast species that were not previously thought to be present in kombucha.

Concern for pathogenic contamination in kombucha

With these teas being commonly brewed in people’s homes, there is a concern that harmful, pathogenic contamination could occur. However, this study found that the naturally acidic pH, on top of the slight alcohol content of kombucha generated under these home-brewing conditions, combined with the microbiological competition involving the indigenous microbial population provided by the cellulosic pellicle, is sufficient to effectively limit the external contamination from undesirable bacteria.

Health benefits of kombucha

It has long been believed that drinking kombucha has many health benefits, ranging from treating the common cold, curing cancer, and improving the immune system. However, there have been no human clinical trials surrounding the health benefits surrounding the consumption of this beverage.

Existing reports suggest that the health benefits are the same as those provided by drinking regular black tea – but more studies are required before any conclusions can be made surrounding the alleged benefits of drinking kombucha tea.


Further Reading

Giant Company = Giant Waste?

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Five companies create nearly 50% of plastic trash in Canada, audit finds 

By Elana Shepert/ Vancouver is Awesome

On Tuesday, Oct. 9, Greenpeace announced that the Coca-Cola Company, PepsiCo, and Nestlé are the world’s top polluters, according their latest audit.

The organization stated in a press release that these companies were most frequently identified in the international report through the 239 cleanup audits held on World Clean Up Day. The Break Free From Plastic movement was held on World Clean Up Day in 42 countries.

In addition, Greenpeace Canada stated that Canadian Plastic Polluters Brand Audits found the top five polluting corporations are: Nestlé, Tim Hortons, PepsiCo., The Coca-Cola Company and McDonald’s.

Further, they state that these brands account for 46 per cent of the 2,231 pieces of identifiable branded plastic trash that they collected during the audit.

“It’s high time we shine a light on the role that throwaway plastic producers are playing in the plastic pollution crisis,” said Sarah King, Greenpeace Canada’s Head of Oceans and Plastics.

“Brand audits create undeniable evidence of how companies like Nestlé, Tim Hortons, PepsiCo., Coca-Cola and McDonald’s are trashing our shorelines and green spaces across Canada.”

While it was the fourth-worst polluter in the Canadian audit, The Coca-Cola Company was the top global polluter in the international audit. In fact, Coke-branded plastic pollution was found in 40 of the 42 participating countries.

The audit also found that cigarette butts, which contain plastic, remain a major contributor to plastic pollution. In fact, 7,228 cigarette butts were found in the Kitsilano Beach audit alone.

Greenpeace has been calling on plastic producing corporations and distributors to commit to phase out single-use plastics. Alternatively, they urge them to invest in new delivery models based on reuse and refill systems.

Greenpeace is also urging the Canadian government to hold corporations accountable for the environmental and social impacts of their products.

The Power of a Purchase

The fact that companies are acting, means you have a lot more POWER than you think!


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Coming soon in 2018 to Squamish, BC is Spark Kombucha's full-scale brewery and tasting room. We are calling it the...


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